controversy, www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq- misconceptions.html , acc. 3 February 2011. 3. Lopes, P., Sucena, E., Santos, M., Magalhaes, S., Rapid experimental evolution of pesticide resistance in C. elegans entails no costs and affects the mating system, PLoS ONE 3 ( 11):e3741, November 2008. 4. E.g., Asser-Kaiser, S., Fritsch, E., Undorf- Spahn, K., et al., Rapid emergence of baculovirus resistance in codling moth due to dominant sex-linked inheritance, Science 317 (5846): 1916–1918, 2007. 5. Catchpoole, D. and Wieland, C., Speedy species surprise, Creation 23 ( 2): 13–15, 2001; creation.com/speedy. 6. Gazave, E., Chevillon, C., Lenormand, T., Marquine, M. R , aymond, M., Dissecting the cost of insecticide resistance genes during the overwintering period of the mosquito Culex pipiens , Heredity 87 :441–448, 2001. 7. Boyle, C., Case of apparent resistance of Rattus norvegicus Berkenhouto anticoagulant poisons, o anticoagulant poisons, Nature 188 (4749):517, 5 November 1960. 8. More, E., Rats! Another case of sickle- cell anemia, Creation 17 ( 2): 44–45, 1995; creation.com/warfarin. 9. See also Wieland, C., Brisk biters, Creation 21 ( 2): 41, 1999; creation.com/brisk.
13. Yates, D., Team finds key mechanism of DDT resistance in malarial mosquitoes, University of Illinois News Bureau, news. illinois.edu/news/08/0616ddt.html, 16 June 2008. 14. A concept cleverly expounded by Michael Behe in his 2007 book The Edge of Evolution , Free Press, New York, USA. See review: Batten, D., Clarity and confusion, Journal of Creation 22 (1): 28–33, 2008; creation.com/edge-evolution. 15. E.g., McFadden-Smith, W., Pesticide Resistance—How it happens and how you can delay it, www.omafra.gov. on.ca/ english/crops/hort/news/tenderfr/tf1302a3. htm , 2 December 2008. 16. Carter, N., Rotation helps prevent resistance, OMAFRA, www.omafra. gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/news/ orchnews/2002/ on1202a7.htm , 1 December 2002.
10. Sometimes researchers have stated that resistance mechanisms have “little or no fitness cost” in light of studies where pesticide resistant genes persist in the absence of pesticide selection. (E.g. refs 3 and 12.) However, it is likely that moving resistant individuals into a harsher environment (e.g. beyond the nutrient-rich agar base of a laboratory Petri dish) would reveal a fitness cost in most, if not all, instances. 11. Pesticide resistance has clear parallels with resistance to penicillin in Staphylococcus bacteria (see creation.com/superbugs and creation.com/evolution-not-observed ), where overproduction of penicillinase increases resistance to penicillin. But in the wild, away from artificial (e g . . hospital a ) environments swamped with antibiotic, the penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus wo d ul be less ‘fit’ because it wastes energy and
resources producing heaps of unnecessary
12. Chiu, T.-L., Wen, Z., Rupasinghe, S.,
and Schuler, M., Comparative molecular
modelling of Anopheles gambiae CYP6Z1,
a mosquito P450 capable of metabolizing
DDT, Proceedings of the National Academy
of Scienc n es USA 105 ( 26):8855–8860, July
Dr Catchpoole has worked as a plant physiologist
and science educator, specializing in tropical
agriculture and horticulture. He works full-time
for Creation Ministries International in Australia.
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