assumed “ocean-covered worlds, with
atmospheres comprised of N2, CO2, and
H2O, and with orbital and geophysical
properties defined from observation.” 8, 9
1. Three inner planets are too hot
It turns out that the three inner planets, b,
c, and d, are too close to TRAPPIST-1 to
be in the habitable zone, i.e. they are too
hot. Wolf writes: “Thus, if water ever
existed on the inner planets, they would
have undergone a runaway greenhouse
and lost their water to space, leaving
them dry today.” 8
2. Three outer planets are too cold
CO2 is one of the greenhouse gases said
to be responsible for global warming of
Earth because it absorbs and re-emits
radiated heat back to Earth. Wolf used
as much as 30 bar CO2 pressure in his
processing. For comparison, our total
atmospheric pressure is a little over 1
bar, and CO2 is only 0.04 percent (400
ppm) of that. He writes:
“… for all simulations of planet
f temperatures became cold
enough that CO2 would condense
onto the surface and thus these
atmospheres would collapse.
Planets g and h … receive
considerably less stellar flux
than planet f, and thus they too
would be unable to escape a
snowball state if warmed by CO2
alone. Thus we conclude that
planets f, g, and h lie outside the
traditional liquid water habitable
zone defined by maximum CO2
greenhouse limit.” 8
In short, planets f, g, and h are too far
away from their star to be in the habitable zone around it, i.e. they are too cold.
3. Does planet e have water?
The above elimination of six planets
from being habitable leaves planet e as
the only possible candidate for life. So
does it have water?
Since Wolf accepts the long-age
evolutionary scenario, he says that ultra-
cool dwarf stars may take a billion years
to settle into a stable system. While this
is happening, such stars would subject
any planets to intense radiation. This
could cause a huge loss of any water—
up to 7 Earth oceans for planet d.
Applying this to planet e, he concludes:
“Thus planet e would have needed an
initial water inventory at least several
times greater than the Earth presently
for it to retain abundant water today.” 8
The alternative, he says, is that the
planets formed further away from the
star where the radiation intensity was
much less, and migrated inwards much
later. But this rescuing device has its
own problems: they would probably
‘migrate’ all the way and be swallowed
by the star in a ‘death spiral’. 10
So given that materialists do not
know how Earth came to have so much
water, we are not expecting evidence
or even suggestions as to how planet e
could ever have had up to seven times
more. As far as we know for certain
there are no Earth-like planets other
than the one we live on. In fact, we
presently know of no other place in the
universe that is even as habitable as our
Eric Wolf’s research shows that none
of the TRAPPIST-1 planets are suitable to support life, which means the
system does not support evolutionary
hopes about finding life elsewhere in
References and notes
1. NASA telescope reveals largest batch of
earth-size, habitable-zone planets around
single star, nasa.gov, 23 Feb. 2017.
2. Marcy, G. et al., Orbital eccentricities,
exoplanets.org, 20 Sept 2003.
3. See Sarfati, J., Origin of Life: the
polymerization problem, 1998, 2014,
4. See Sarfati, J., Origin of life: the chirality
problem, 1998, 2010, creation.com/chirality.
5. For a comprehensive analysis of the multiple
problems for chemical evolution (aka
abiogenesis or biopoiesis), see Batten, D.,
Origin of life, 26 November 2013,
6. NASA’s Hubble Telescope Makes First
Atmospheric Study of Earth-Sized
Exoplanets, 21 July 2016.
7. Sarfati, J., The sun: our special star,
Creation 22(1): 27–31, 1999;
8. Wolf, E., Assessing the Habitability of
the TRAPPIST-1 System Using a 3D
Climate Model, available at arxiv.org/
pdf/1703.05815.pdf on pre-print site arxiv.
9. For the three inner planets, simulations were
for planet d and extrapolated to planets b
and c because these being closer to their star
“would be significantly hotter than planet d
given identical atmospheric compositions”.
Likewise for the three outer planets,
simulations were for planet f as it is closer
to the star than planets g and h, and so has a
better chance of being habitable.
10. See Spencer, W., Planets and migrating
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