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Present processes would not form
such a profile. Hedberg also stated, “…
there is considerable controversy as
to the origin in detail of continental
slopes. It seems evident that there is no
The reason there should be a gradual
descent to the deep sea is that most ocean
currents are wind-generated. (Sinking
of denser, salty water at high latitudes
is only a minor factor, although some
scientists think otherwise.)
9 Because of
the prevailing winds, ocean currents are
commonly parallel to the coast, such as
the Gulf Stream off the East Coast of the
10 A uniformitarian would
thus expect sediments to spread out first
and then slide down into the deep ocean.
The Genesis Flood formed the
Since continental shelves and slopes
surround all of the continents, sheet
deposition (which implies strong
currents) seems the only reasonable
way to explain their existence. This
would correspond with the first half
of the Retreating Stage of the Flood in
Walker’s model11 when currents were
very wide, possibly hundreds or even
thousands of kilometres wide.
Sometimes, the dip of the sedimen-
tary rocks in the continental margin
increases seaward, forming what are
called delta-like features. This indicates
the depositional current was flowing
offshore and not parallel to the shoreline
as expected from wind-generated currents.
Hedberg states: “Reflection profiling
has shown that many slopes in their
present form are the result of prograding
Prograding means that the sediment
was deposited by currents that moved
perpendicularly away from the continents,
12 unlike the typical parallel-to-shore currents we see today.
Today, when a flooding river enters
a larger body of water, it deposits its
sediment load in the form of a delta. By
analogy this sheds light on the origin of
the continental shelf and slope. The top of
the delta would represent the continental
shelf; the delta edge would correspond to
the continental slope. Continental margins
represent a global phenomenon that gives
powerful evidence for the global Flood.
This speaks strongly against the idea that
the world’s sedimentary layers formed
slowly over ‘millions of years’.
References and notes
1. Oard, M.J., Massive erosion of continents
demonstrates Flood runoff, Creation
2. Oard, M.J., How did the waters of Noah’s Flood
drain off the continents? Creation
37( 3): 28–31,
3. Hedberg, H. D., Continental margins from
viewpoint of the petroleum geologist, AAPG
54(1): 6–7, 1970.
4. Whittaker, J.M. et al., Global sediment thickness
dataset updated for the Australian-Antarctic
Southern Ocean, Geochemistry, Geophysics,
14( 8):3297–3305 | doi: 10.1002/
ggge.20181, 2013; ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/sedthick/
sedthick.html; The deepest sediments are in
the northern Gulf of Mexico, off the east coast
of North America, and in the Bay of Bengal.
There is no data from the Arctic Ocean, but
the sedimentary rocks are very thick along that
5. Pazzaglia, F.J. and Gardner, T. W., Late Cenozoic
flexural deformation of the middle U.S. Atlantic
J.Geophysical Research 99(B6):
12,143–12,157, 1994 and Poag, C. W. and Sevon,
W. D., A record of Appalachian denudation in
postrift Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary
deposits of the U.S. middle Atlantic continental
margin, Geomorphology 2(1– 3):119–157, 1989.
6. King, L.C., Wandering Continents and Spreading
Sea Floors on an Expanding Earth, John Wiley
and Sons, New York, NY, p. 200, 1983.
7. King, ref. 6, p. 199.
8. Hedberg, ref. 3, p. 11.
9. Wunsch, C., An oceanographer charts the ebb
and flow of opinion on ocean currents, Nature
10. Kennett, J., Marine Geology, Prentice-Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ, p. 241, 1982.
11. Walker, T., A Biblical geological model; in:
Walsh, R.E. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third
International Conference on Creationism,
technical symposium sessions, Creation Science
Fellowship, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 581–592, 1994;
12. Oard, M.J., Coastal Great escarpments caused by
Flood runoff, Creation
37( 4): 46–48, 2015 has in
its figure 6 a schematic of the Flood formation of
the continental shelf.
has an M.S. in atmospheric science and is a retired
meteorologist from the US National Weather
Service. He has authored numerous books and
articles, including Exploring Geology with Mr
Hibb. He is on the board of Creation Research
Society and is widely regarded as an expert on Ice
Age creation topics. For more: