Fossil ‘age ranges’ back the Flood Hitler’s religion
Catholic responses to evolution Design no ‘mind trick’
Mars floods The search for Sodom
Sediment thickness vs deep time Stephen, Acts, and Terah’s death
Innate moral law: a real phenomenon H. naledi placement hypothesis
JEPD’s anti-Moses claims—new evidence The marvellous ribosome
Reading evolution into the Bible And much more!
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DON BAT TEN, B. Sc.Agr.(Hons.), Ph. D.
Dr Batten worked as a research scientist and
consultant plant physiologist and is now the
Managing Director of Creation Ministries
International in Brisbane, Australia. For more:
is a lot of antibiotic present. However,
while natural selection explains the
survival of the resistance, it doesn’t
explain the arrival of the resistance.
Resistance results from modifying
(usually breaking) an existing system,
or transferring genes from those that
already have it. Where a mutation
breaks something, natural selection
will tend to eliminate the resistant
strains in the wild, yet favour them in
an antibiotic-saturated environment.
Research into antibiotic resistance
has revealed some good examples
of mutations and natural selection
that have helped the bacteria adapt to
surviving antibiotics. However, none of
the discoveries support the notion that
accidental changes to existing genes/
DNA (mutations) could generate the
many thousands of new genes and gene
networks needed to transform microbes
into mankind, mangoes, and minke
whales. Indeed, the changes studied
7. This is called ‘conjugation’.
8. Evolutionists assume that these genes (for
example, to make the penicillin-destroying
enzyme b-lactamase) must have originally
arisen by mutation, but that belief is not
what is observed.
underline just how limited mutations are
in terms of ‘upward’ evolution.
References and notes
1. Spellberg, B., The antibacterial pipeline:
why it is drying up, and what must be
done about it, In: Antibiotic Resistance:
Implications for Global Health and Novel
Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary,
National Academies Press, p. 327, 2011.
2. Cooper, M.A. and Shlaes, D., Fix the
antibiotics pipeline, Nature 472(7341): 32,
2011 | doi: 10.1038/472032a.
3. Ling, L.L. et al., A new antibiotic kills
pathogens without detectable resistance,
Nature 517(7535):455–459, 2015 |
doi: 10.1038/nature14098; the antibiotic is
4. Moffatt, J.H. et al., Colistin resistance
in Acinetobacter baumannii is mediated
by complete loss of lipopolysaccharide
production, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
54( 12):4971– 7, 2010 | doi: 10.1128/
5. Blair, J.M.A., Richmond, G.E., and Piddock,
L.J.V., Multidrug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria and their role in antibiotic
resistance (review), Future Microbiology
9( 10):1165–1177, 2014; | doi: 10.2217/
6. There are other ways that resistance genes
can be transferred as well, involving
bacteriophages (a virus that infects
bacteria), transposons, and ‘naked DNA’.
Chemical structures of two antibiotics:
penicillin (top) and fosfomycin (bottom)